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Biblical Facts from Old Testament


Habakkuk’s final prayer (Habakkuk 3:1–19) was written as a song. The musical term “selah,” also found in the psalms, occurs three times. It closes with a note about stringed instruments, which would have included harps and lyres (Ps. 33:2).


Near the end.

Zephaniah was written during Josiah’s reign (640–609 b.c.), after Assyria had defeated Israel. The prophet warns that God will also judge Judah. Soon thereafter, Babylon invaded Judah, eventually destroying it in 586 b.c.


The Mortar mentioned in Zaphaniah 1:11 was probably one of Jerusalem’s market districts. It probably got its name from being located in a valley shaped like a mortar that is used for grinding things with a pestle.


The name Palestine is actually derived from the word Philistine. The Philistines migrated to Palestine from Crete. They are also called Cherethites (see 1 Sam. 30:14).


The rivers of Cush mentioned in Zephaniah ch. 3 are the Blue Nile and the White Nile, the two major tributaries of the Nile River, which flows northward through Egypt to the Mediterranean Sea. The Blue Nile is 900 miles (1,450 km) long and begins its northward journey in Ethiopia. The White Nile is 2,300 miles (3,700 km) long, flowing all the way from Lake Victoria in Uganda.


The paneled houses described in Haggai 1:4 probably had walls and ceilings covered with cedar wood. Such decoration was a sign of prosperity in a land where wood was scarce. The people were spending freely on their own homes while neglecting the rebuilding of the temple.


The temple was the means through which God dwelt with his people in meaningful fellowship (Haggai 1:13; 2:4–5). It also brought glory and pleasure to God (Haggai 1:8). Jesus said that he was the final temple, restoring fellowship once more between God and his people (John 2:19–22; Eph. 2:19–22).


Zechariah in the NT. Several NT writers quote or allude to the book of Zechariah. One estimate is that 54 passages from Zechariah occur in 67 different places in the NT. Many of these are in Revelation.


The number four in Scripture is often associated with creation or completeness. There are four different directions of the compass, four elements, four seasons of the year, and four times of day (morning, noon, evening, and midnight). In Zechariah 1:18, four represents all of the world powers responsible for the scattering of Judah. However, the Lord, who is sovereign over his creation, will care for his people and punish their oppressors.


Eight visions. The book of Zechariah has two major sections: chs. 1–8 and chs. 9–14. The first section contains eight visions that describe what God plans to do. Many of the symbols and images in these visions also appear in Revelation.


Widows, fatherless children, sojourners, and the poor were vulnerable members of society (Zechariah 7:10). Treating them justly and kindly matters very much to the Lord, and he will punish those who mistreat them (see Ex. 22:21–24; Deut. 10:18–19).


“Your king is coming.” Zechariah 9:9 prophesies about the coming of a future king of Israel. The NT quotes this verse when describing Jesus’ triumphal entry into Jerusalem, riding on a donkey (Matt. 21:5; John 12:15).


When did Israel defeat Greece?

Zechariah predicted that the sons of Zion would someday defeat the sons of Greece (Zechariah 9:13). This is probably a prophecy of the Maccabean revolt in the second century b.c., when the Jews defeated the successors of Alexander the Great who had become their rulers.


Zechariah promises that when the people of Jeru­salem repent, the Lord will provide a fountain, or spring, that will cleanse them from their sins (Zechariah 13:1). They were unclean because they had worshiped idols, but when they repented, God would forgive them.


The title Lord of hosts appears more frequently in Malachi than in any other OT book. Following the exile, Judah was a very small province within the vast Persian Empire. It had no army of its own, leaving its people painfully aware of how limited their resources were. Malachi wants to remind his people that God is in command of a great heavenly host that stands ready to defend Judah.


Blind, lame, and sick animals were financially worthless. The Lord commanded his people to sacrifice healthy animals (see Deut. 15:21; 17:1). Disobeying this command showed a lack of respect for the Lord (Mal. 1:8, 14).


Jesus, the son of Sirach, said that Isaiah was hnby` hgdwl, "the great prophet"
Ecclesiasticus 48:22.
Henery commentary of whole Bible, IV, 2, says that the book of Isaiah is placed first, because it is the largest of the prophetic books.And it contains more chapters than other prophetic books. Isaiah’s prominence stems from its content and style more than its length.

The Hebrew text is about 12% shorter than Jeremiah.

  • Jerome, Against Rufinus 2.32, says of Isaiah, “He was more of an evangelist than a prophet.”

  • Augustine, City of God, c.29, wrote, “Some say he must be called evangelist rather than a prophet.”

  • Albert Barnes, notes on old testament: Isaiah I, 1950, 2, refers to Isaiah’s “strong Evangelical character”.

James Flamming, “The new Testament use of Isaiah,” Southwestern Journal of Theology 11:89, states that "Isaiah is quoted more than twice as much as any other major prophet and more more than all the minor prophets combined.

Flamming says in p.103, that the New Testament quotes Isaiah 1-39 (148 times) and Isaiah 40-66 (261 times).

Referenced from Peter A Steveson’s commentary on Isaiah.


The Talmud, Yebamoth 49b, records death of prophet ISAIAH as, Supposedly Manasseh bought him to trial for contradicting Moses teachings that,

  • Man could not see God and live (Exodus 33:20). Isaiah had claimed that he saw God recorded (Isaiah 6:1).

  • Moses had taught God was near Israel (Deuteronomy 4:7). Isaiah said that God must be sought in (Isaiah 55:6).

  • Moses taught God would fulfill our days , not make additions (Exodus 23:26). Isaiah said that God would add fifteen years to Hezekiah (2 kings 20:6).

Knowing that Manassah would not accept anything he said, Isaiah

thereupon pronounced [the divine] Name and was swallowed up by a cedar. The cedar, however, was bought and sawn asunder. When the saw reached his mouth he died.

In Sanhedrin 103b, another talmudic tradition says that the statement that Manasseh shed innocent blood every day, 2 Kings 21:16, was interpreted in Babylon to refer to killing of Isaiah.

Justin Martyr, Dialogue with Trypho 120, in Ante-Nicene Father, I, 259, records the tradition: whom [Isaiah] you sawed with a wooden saw.

Origen, Ante-Nicene Father, IV, 388, refers to the “tradition … that Esaias the Prophet was sawn asunder”.

Similar references can be found among others as,

  • Albert barens, I, 10;

  • Page H. Kelley, Isaiah in The Broadman Bible commentary, V, 1971, 150;

  • George Rawlinson, Isaiah, in The Pulpit Commentary,

  • Refer to the view that Hebrew 11:37 refers to Isaiah’s death.

Referenced from Peter A Steveson’s commentary on Isaiah.


“Isaias” and “Esaias” are same name of Prophit Isaiah. Who’s prophecy began around 740 BC, which includes prophetic declarations of Cyrus the Great in the Bible, restoration of the nation of Israel from exile in Babylon. Broad view of this book parts of the first half of the book (Is. chapters 1–39) as originating with the historical prophet, interspersed with prose commentaries written in the time of King Josiah a hundred years later; with the remainder of the book dating from immediately before and immediately after the end of the exile in Babylon, almost two centuries after the time of the original prophet.


What are 11 burdens we see till end on "Isaiah chapter 23" and what they meant for future look up?
Author V. McGee puts this in his radio ministry as,

  1. Babylon - False religion,
  2. Palystan - Apostate religion,
  3. Moab - Formal religion,
  4. Damascus - Compromise,
  5. Euthopia - Missions,
  6. Egypt - as World,
  7. Persia - Luxuary,
  8. Edom - as Flesh,
  9. Arabia - War,
  10. Jerusalem (as valley of vision) - Religion of politics,
  11. Tyria - as Commercialisim.

They are not literal definition of those nation but how they represented with there nature in those time.